Scientists use neutrons to take a deeper look at record boost in thermoelectric efficiency

General Physics - Mon, 06/18/2018 - 13:05
Neutron facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are aiding scientists in research to boost the power and efficiency of thermoelectric materials. These performance increases could enable more cost-effective and practical uses for thermoelectrics, with wider industry adoption, to improve fuel economy in vehicles, make power plants more efficient, and advance body heat–powered technologies for watches and smartphones.

When consumers don't want to talk about what they bought

Social Sciences News - Mon, 06/18/2018 - 10:54
One of the joys of shopping for many people is the opportunity to brag about their purchases to friends and others.

Lifting of Saudi Arabia's ban on women driving poses policy challenges

Social Sciences News - Mon, 06/18/2018 - 10:03
This month Saudi Arabia will put an end to its ban on women driving, opening the way for millions of new drivers to navigate a country three times bigger than Texas. While the policy shift provides relief to women who lacked freedom of mobility, the long-term effects of ending the ban are far from clear and will present the Saudi government with several policy challenges, according to an issue brief by experts at Rice University's Baker Institute for Public Policy.

How emotions shape work life

Social Sciences News - Mon, 06/18/2018 - 08:57
Jochen Menges, an expert in organisational behaviour, thinks that emotions matter profoundly for employee performance and behaviour. His studies bring nuance to our understanding of how employees wish to feel at work.

Professor says people are turning to 'socially mediated vigilante justice' to right perceived wrongs

Social Sciences News - Mon, 06/18/2018 - 08:34
The internet loves creating villains: People get caught on camera or social media behaving badly, the post or video goes viral and anyone with a computer or smartphone piles on and fans the flames.

'Face-to-face, humans are not good at violence': Randall Collins in conversation with Michel Wieviorka

Social Sciences News - Mon, 06/18/2018 - 08:12
Ten years ago, two major work about violence came out: "Violence: A Micro-Sociological Theory," by Randall Collins (Princeton University Press, 2008) and "Violence: A New Approach," by Michel Wieviorka (Sage, 2009). The two sociologists meet today to discuss their theories and renew the debate for The Conversation France.

Integrated approach is the best way to manage urban growth, expert says

Social Sciences News - Mon, 06/18/2018 - 07:03
Unwise government policy has given the Netherlands a serious traffic problem. For decades, spatial planning policy-makers have failed to take adequate account of the impact of individual travel behaviours, and of private car use in particular.

The secret to measuring the energy of an antineutrino

General Physics - Mon, 06/18/2018 - 07:03
Scientists study tiny particles called neutrinos to learn about how our universe evolved. These particles, well-known for being tough to detect, could tell the story of how matter won out over antimatter a fraction of a second after the Big Bang and, consequently, why we're here at all.

Genetic engineering researcher: Politicians are deaf to people's ethical concerns

Social Sciences News - Mon, 06/18/2018 - 05:54
While a many Danes question whether genetically modified foods are unnatural, this concern is much less apparent among politicians, according to Professor Jesper Lassen at the University of Copenhagen's Department of Food and Resource Economics. Lassen has investigated Danish attitudes about genetically modified foods since the early 90's.

Future quantum technologies may exploit identical particle entanglement

Quantum Physics News - Fri, 06/15/2018 - 11:20
Usually when physicists perform quantum entanglement between particles—whether it be qubits, atoms, photons, electrons, etc.—the particles are distinguishable in some way. Only recently have physicists demonstrated the feasibility of generating entanglement between particles that are completely identical. Interestingly, this entanglement exists just because of the indistinguishability of the particles, without any interaction between them.

Study finds less corruption in countries where more women are in government

Social Sciences News - Fri, 06/15/2018 - 10:15
A greater representation of women in the government is bad news for corruption, according to a new study published in the Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization by researchers Chandan Jha of Le Moyne College and Sudipta Sarangi of Virginia Tech.

New form of matter may lie just beyond the periodic table

General Physics - Fri, 06/15/2018 - 09:30
Currently, the heaviest element on the periodic table is oganesson, which has an atomic mass of 294 and was officially named in 2016. Like every element on the periodic table, nearly all of oganesson's mass comes from protons and neutrons (types of baryons) that are themselves made of three quarks each. A crucial feature of all known baryonic matter is that its quarks are bound together so tightly by the strong force that they are inseparable. As particles made of bound quarks (such as protons and neutrons) are called hadrons, scientists refer to the ground state of baryonic matter as "hadronic matter."

Nearly 70 percent of undocumented Mexican immigrants report discrimination

Social Sciences News - Fri, 06/15/2018 - 09:20
A new study from Rice University found that 69 percent of undocumented Mexicans living in high-risk neighborhoods near the California-Mexico border reported interpersonal discrimination due to being undocumented.

Fake Facebook account reveals how we fall for fake news

Social Sciences News - Fri, 06/15/2018 - 08:52
A fictitious Facebook account set up by a team of researchers at the University of Nottingham to mirror the sort of news feed users might encounter on their own Facebook pages has highlighted the difficulties in combating the spread of fake news, because of the way we assess news when it is presented via social media.

A new experiment to understand dark matter

General Physics - Fri, 06/15/2018 - 08:10
Is dark matter a source of a yet unknown force in addition to gravity? The mysterious dark matter is little understood and trying to understand its properties is an important challenge in modern physics and astrophysics. Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy in Bonn, Germany, have proposed a new experiment that makes use of super-dense stars to learn more about the interaction of dark matter with standard matter. This experiment already provides some improvement in constraining dark matter properties, but even more progress is promised by explorations in the centre of our Milky Way that are underway.

Quantum transfer at the push of a button

Quantum Physics News - Fri, 06/15/2018 - 05:32
In new quantum information technologies, fragile quantum states have to be transferred between distant quantum bits. Researchers at ETH have now realized such a quantum transmission between two solid-state qubits at the push of a button.

CERN starts major upgrade to reap more data at atom smasher

General Physics - Fri, 06/15/2018 - 05:31
The world's largest particle smasher is kicking off a major upgrade to churn out 10 times more data and help unlock the secrets of physics.

Why don't most people become radicalised?

Social Sciences News - Fri, 06/15/2018 - 05:22
To understand what leads people into violent extremism, scientists are turning the question on its head and asking why it is that most young people don't become radicalised.

Hawking's voice to be beamed into space during memorial

General Physics - Fri, 06/15/2018 - 03:22
A message from late British astrophysics giant Stephen Hawking will be beamed towards the nearest black hole as his remains are laid to rest in London's Westminster Abbey on Friday.

Children in India exhibit religious tolerance, study finds

Social Sciences News - Fri, 06/15/2018 - 02:56
A new investigation of how children reason about religious rules reveals a remarkable level of acceptance of different religions' rules and practices.