Respect Indigenous ancestors: Scholars urge community engagement before research

Social Sciences News - 6 hours 42 min ago
A new article in the journal Science provides guidance for those intending to study ancient human remains in the Americas. The paper, written by Indigenous scholars and scientists and those who collaborate with Indigenous communities on studies of ancient DNA, offers a clear directive to others contemplating such research: First, do no harm.

A user-friendly, step-by-step guide to conducting comparative product evaluations

Social Sciences News - 12 hours 39 min ago
According to the World Bank, over 1.1 billion people have lifted themselves from extreme poverty since 1990. But even as the global outlook on extreme poverty improves, billions of people continue to struggle to access basic human needs, like water, food, shelter, health care and energy. In response to these challenges, innovators around the world have developed a preponderance of cost-effective, locally implemented solutions, from solar lanterns and water filters to improved cookstoves and refugee shelters.

Behavioral differences between Northern v. Southern Chinese linked to wheat v. rice farming, study shows

Social Sciences News - 13 hours 33 min ago
A new study from the University of Chicago Booth School of Business analyzing behavior patterns of people across China shows that the traditional interdependent rice-farming culture of southern China has resulted in today's residents—even city dwellers far removed from farming—being more interdependent and less controlling over their environment compared to their countrymen who hail from the more independent wheat-farming culture of northern China.

Students' social relationships in the last year of secondary education

Social Sciences News - 14 hours 22 min ago
The Personal and Community Relationships Laboratory (Laboratorio de Redes Personales y Comunidades) at the University of Seville has published a project that shows the structural properties of high-school students personal networks and predicts the probability of those students maintaining (or not) relationships with their high-school friends when they start their university studies. That is to say, the data obtained from individual personal networks can be used to predict positions in the complete networks. Specifically, having a less cohesive personal network (a more centralised one) means that the student is more open to new relationships.

Discovery of new material is key step toward more powerful computing

Quantum Physics News - 15 hours 42 min ago
A new material created by Oregon State University researchers is a key step toward the next generation of supercomputers.

Weather associated with sentiments expressed on social media

Social Sciences News - Wed, 04/25/2018 - 14:00
Sentiments expressed on Facebook and Twitter may be associated with certain weather patterns, according to a study published April 25, 2018 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Patrick Baylis from the Vancouver School of Economics, Canada, Nick Obradovich from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and colleagues.

Entanglement observed in near-macroscopic objects

Quantum Physics News - Wed, 04/25/2018 - 13:00
Perhaps the strangest prediction of quantum theory is entanglement, a phenomenon whereby two distant objects become intertwined in a manner that defies both classical physics and a common-sense understanding of reality. In 1935, Albert Einstein expressed his concern over this concept, referring to it as "spooky action at a distance."

Next step towards quantum network based on micromechanical beams

Quantum Physics News - Wed, 04/25/2018 - 13:00
In recent years, nanofabricated mechanical oscillators have emerged as a promising platform for quantum information applications. Quantum entanglement of engineered optomechanical resonators would offer a compelling route toward scalable quantum networks. Researchers at the TU Delft and the University of Vienna have now observed this entanglement and report their findings in this week's edition of Nature.

Nuclear radiation detecting device could lead to new homeland security tool

General Physics - Wed, 04/25/2018 - 12:20
A Northwestern University and Argonne National Laboratory research team has developed an exceptional next-generation material for nuclear radiation detection that could provide a significantly less expensive alternative to the detectors now in commercial use.

JFK was not shot from the grassy knoll, suggests new research

Social Sciences News - Wed, 04/25/2018 - 11:14
The long-held conspiracy theory that John F. Kennedy was shot by a second gunman on the grassy knoll is wrong, according to a new analysis of video footage of the shooting, published in the journal Heliyon. The results support the official autopsy findings: JFK suffered a gunshot wound caused by the same type of rifle as that owned by Lee Harvey Oswald, fired from the vicinity of the Texas School Book Depository building located behind the motorcade.

U.S. kids of color get kicked out of school at higher rates – here's how to stop it

Social Sciences News - Wed, 04/25/2018 - 10:50
When two black men were arrested at a Philadelphia Starbucks where they had been waiting for a business meeting on April 12, the incident called renewed attention to the bias that racial minorities face in American society.

Exposure to domestic violence costs US government $55 billion each year

Social Sciences News - Wed, 04/25/2018 - 10:26
The federal government spends an estimated $55 billion annually on dealing with the effects of childhood exposure to domestic violence, according to new research by social scientists at Case Western Reserve University.

Invisible magnetic sensors measure magnetic fields without disturbing them

General Physics - Wed, 04/25/2018 - 09:30
Currently, most of the magnetic sensors used in today's computers, airplanes, cars, and other systems distort the magnetic fields that they are measuring. These distortions can cause major problems for some applications, in particular biomedical techniques, that require highly accurate measurements, and can also cause cross-talk in sensor arrays.

Using a quantum blockchain to protect blockchains of the future

Quantum Physics News - Wed, 04/25/2018 - 08:50
A pair of researchers with Victoria University of Wellington has suggested that the way to prevent future blockchains from future hackers using quantum computers is to use quantum blockchains. Theoretical physicists Del Rajan and Matt Visser explain their idea in a paper they have uploaded to the arXiv preprint server.

Study reveals remarkably high proportion of national elections are not free and fair

Social Sciences News - Wed, 04/25/2018 - 08:44
Researchers from the University of Birmingham and the London School of Economics have found that the number of elections across the world has reached an all-time high, but that this has done little to increase the quality of democracy in the world.

Study shows prejudiced attitudes—not economic concern—drove most voters to Trump

Social Sciences News - Wed, 04/25/2018 - 08:43
Much of the narrative surrounding Donald Trump's surprising 2016 election victory has focused on economically stressed voters in Rust Belt states—feeling forgotten by both major parties and fretting over globalization—who rallied behind an outsider pushing for change.

Amazonian Bora people mimic the rhythm of their language for communication over large distances using drums

Social Sciences News - Tue, 04/24/2018 - 19:10
An international team of researchers, including Frank Seifart and Sven Grawunder of the former Department of Linguistics at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and Julien Meyer from the Université Grenoble Alpes carried out research into the drummed language system of the Bora people of the Northwest Amazon. They found the Boras not only reproduce the melody of words and sentences in this endangered language, but also their rhythm. This suggests the crucial role of linguistic rhythm in language processing has been underestimated.

Feelings of ethical superiority can lead to workplace ostracism, social undermining: study

Social Sciences News - Tue, 04/24/2018 - 16:41
Do you consider yourself more ethical than your coworker?

Study shows newspaper op-eds change minds

Social Sciences News - Tue, 04/24/2018 - 13:36
Readers might nod along or roll their eyes at a newspaper opinion piece, but a new study provides evidence that op-ed columns are an effective means for changing people's minds about the issues of the day.

Study examines how 'partner and rival' strategies can foster or destroy cooperation

Social Sciences News - Tue, 04/24/2018 - 11:56
If you're an optimist, you probably believe that humanity is inherently cooperative and willing to sacrifice for the greater good of all. If you're a pessimist, on the other hand, chances are you believe that, in the end, people will always do what is in their own self-interest.